كل التعابير الكتابية التي تخص الانجليزية بدون تحميل All written expressions belong to English

  1. #1
    Prof Adam

    Prof Adam مدون مجتهد

    كل التعابير الكتابية التي تخص الانجليزية بدون تحميل - All written expressions belong to English without loading



    1- Text Book p 23

    Write it out p 23

    A friend of yours always considers himself / herself a failure. Write for him / her a recipe for success using the imperative and sequencers. Use the information below.
    Start like this:
    You want to be successful, don't you?
    Try my recipe. First, …
    Verbs: to take, to add, to sprinkle, to mix,
    Nouns: 2 kilograms of hard work, a pinch of honesty, a spoonful of self-respect, half a kilogram of punctuality.

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Farid,
    Thank you for your letter of 12th June. I was really sorry to hear that you didn't do well in the mid-term Maths Exam again. I understand that after two bad performances in Maths, you may start considering yourself a failure. I think you are overreacting.
    It's not true at all that some people are born losers as they say, and that others are born winners. No my friend, failure and success at school depend on what you put into your work.
    You want to be successful, don't you? Try my recipe because I've already tried it and it has worked well for me. First, take 2 kilograms of hard work. Add to them half a kilogram of punctuality. Then, sprinkle a pinch of honesty on them. Finally, mix in a spoonful of self-respect. I'm sure that you will soon start saying that you were born a winner because this recipe will guarantee you success in the final Maths Exam…
    With my best wishes,
    Karim
    2- Text Book p 28

    Activity 4 p 28

    Write a short letter to a British friend of yours where you will inform him / her about Algerian mealtimes, meals and what these meals are made of.
    Start like this:
    Unlike the British, the Algerians have only ___ meals a day. First, they have ___ when they get up, usually at ___. It's made of ___. Next, they have ___ at around ___ etc,…

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Tony,
    Thank you for letting me knows about the British mealtimes. It is my turn to give you some information about mealtimes in Algeria.
    Unlike the British, the Algerians have only three meals a day. First, they have breakfast when they get up, usually at 7 o'clock. It's made of bread, jam, butter, and white coffee. Next they have lunch at around 12. This is the biggest meal of the day. Finally, they have dinner at around 8.
    With my

    5- Text Book p 34

    Activity 3 p 34

    Now write a letter of invitation using the information in the invitation card .


    Suggestion key:

    Dear Sadia,
    I'm writing to invite you to our housewarming party. We're going to celebrate it on 20th June, from 10 to 12. our new house is …

    6- Text Book p 38

    Activity 4 p 38

    Read the ingredients in the recipe below and write a coherent paragraph to give instructions on how to make an omelette. Start with a tag question and use the imperative and sequencers. We accept all credit cards.

    Suggestion key:

    You like eating omelettes, don't you? And you have learned how to make one, haven't you? Well it doesn't matter whether you know or know or not to make omelettes. My recipe for making omelettes is a bit special. First, break two or three eggs into a plastic recipient. Next, add a little pinch of table oil and one of ground pepper to the eggs. Beat them up with mixer for two minutes. Then, heat the frying pan for 30 seconds. Put one spoonful of table oil in the pan. After that, empty the beaten eggs into the frying pan. Cook for one minute at reduced heat. Once the omelette is ready, put it into a plate. Finally, before you start eating it, sprinkle it with cheese and herbs. That will give it flavour.

    File Two :

    1- Text Book p 45

    Write it out p 45

    Group work. Imagine you are a teacher. Use the table blow to make notes. Then write a small school report about a student of yours. You are supposed to read this report to your colleagues on class assessment day.


    Student Last term Now Expectations
    Farida Spoke very little English Speaks and reads English quite well Be able to __ fluently won't be able to __yet

    Example:
    Last term, Farida, could speak _____. Now she can _____. She was able to get a good mark in the term test last March. If she works / studies hard, she will be able to _____.
    Suggestion key:

    Last term, Farida, could speak very little English. Now she can speak and read quite well. She was able to get a good mark in the term test last March. If she continues to work hard, she will be able to pass with merit.
    OR

    At the beginning of the school year, Farida couldn't even solve easy Maths problems. Now she can do that. She was able to have a pass in the final exam. I am sure that she will be able to do better in the future because she has become more self-confident in the subject.
    2- Text Book p 49

    Write it out p 49
    Use the information below to write a note in your dairy to list the things that are possible or likely to happen at the end of your school year. Use may, may not, might or might not.
    to work / very hard / this year / so / to fail / my Brevet Exam.
    to be / still young, so / to repeat / the year.
    to go to / a vocational training school instead / because / to like doing things / with my hands.
    to like drawing / a lot / so / to train as a draughtsman.
    when / to finish / training / to open / a workshop.

    Suggestion key:

    Everything can happen at the end of the school year. I haven't really worked hard this year especially in Maths. So I may fail my Brevet Exam. I'm still young. So I may be accepted to repeat the year and take the exam again. However, exams are also a question of luck. So I may pass. I haven't made up my mind yet whether I will continue my studies in the lycée (secondary school). I may go to a vocational school instead because I like doing things with my hands. I particularly fond of drawing. So I might decide to train as a draughtsman. When I finish training, I may open a workshop. I'm sure that I'll manage to make a lot of money.

    3- Text Book p 53

    Activity 4 p 53

    Write a report about an animal of your choice which is in danger of extinction using the information on the report card below.



    ANIMAL REPORT
    Name of the animal
    Where does it live?
    What does it look like?
    What is special about it in terms or what it can do ?
    How long does it live?
    What is the maximum age to which it can live?
    What may cause its extinction?
    What can we do to save it?








    Suggestion key:


    Name of the animal Elephant Dolphin Gazelle
    Where does it live? Africa and Asia Seas and Oceans Sahara
    What does it look like? huge and heavy not very big and it is the mot intelligent animal very small and graceful
    What is special about it in terms or what it can do ? take heavy things and uses it as a mean of transport they are seemingly playful attitude reach high speeds
    How long does it live? 60 years 50 years 13 years
    What is the maximum age to which it can live? 70 years 70 years 15 years
    What may cause its extinction? ivory and skin their meat highly valued meat and skin
    What can we do to save it? stop hunting it stop hunting it and reduce pollution stop hunting it

    "One of the animals in danger of extinction in the world today is the elephant. The elephant lives in Africa and Asia. The elephant is huge and heavy animal. It can take heavy things and people use it as a mean of transport. The elephant may live between 60 to 70 years. People hunt elephants for their ivory and skin. We can protect them from extinction by stopping hunting them."

    4- Text Book p 59

    Activity 3 p 59

    Write a ten-line newspaper article to say what the NASA will / may / might / will be able to do with robots in the future. Draw inspiration from the second paragraph of the article from Popular Science above.

    Some ideas:
    NASA scientists / to make / a new type of spaceship.
    Future astronauts / to be / a new generation of robots.
    These robots / to go on missions of exploration to Mars.
    They / to communicate with NASA specialists / because / to speak English.
    They / to carry with them another robot, Hyperion.
    Hyperion / to work 24 hours a day / because / it / to run with solar energy.
    to find continuous sunlight in the polar regions of the planet Mars.
    to run fast over rocks.
    Hyperion / to take pictures…
    Suggestion key:

    The National Aeronautic and Space Administration is on its way to make a new advances in conquest of space.
    NASA scientists will be able to make a new type of spaceship soon. This spaceship will be more powerful than those which the NASA ha made so far. The future astronauts may well be a new generation of robots. This new generation of robot astronauts might be able to go on missions of exploration to Mars. They may be able to communicate with NASA specialists in Kennedy Space Centre in Florida because they can speak English. According a NASA director, these astronaut robots will be able to carry with them another robot, Hyperion.

    File three :

    1- Text Book p 69

    Write it up 1 and 2 p 69

    Activity 1 p 69

    Put the words in the scrambled sentences below in the right order.
    Example:
    Soon / as / as / pass / my / Brevet / Exam / I'll / to the lycée / go / I .
    As soon as I pass my Brevet Exam, I'll go to the lycée.

    Leave / when / I / the lycée / I'll / around / travel / Algeria.
    Hard / I'll / for / study / pass / I / three years / mail / until / Baccalaureate.
    After / my / diploma / I / get / I'll / glass houses / build.
    I'll / for some / time / work / before / I / to / go / university / to train as an architect.

    Activity 2 p 69

    Re-arrange the re-ordered sentences in the exercise 1 above to take coherently about your expectations using sequencers.

    Suggestion key:

    Act 1p 69

    a- 1. As soon as I pass my exams, I'll go to the lycée.
    c- 2. I'll keep on travelling until I find a good place to live in.
    b- 3. When I leave the lycée, I'll travel around Algeria.
    d- 4. I'll work for some time before I go to university to train as an architect.
    e- 5. After I get my diploma, I'll build glass houses.



    Act 2p 69

    I've great expectations for the future / I'm a boy of great expectations. As soon as I pass my exams, I'll go to the lycée. When I leave the lycée, I'll travel around Algeria. I'll keep on travelling until I find a good place to live in. Then I'll work for some time before I go to university to train as an architect. After I get my diploma, I'll build glass houses.
    Finally, I will be a very famous architect.

    2- Text Book p 72

    Activity 2 p 72

    You want to go camping in the mountains. But your brother tries to prevent you from doing so by pointing out difficulties ( column A ). Answer him by completing the sentences in ( column B ).


    Column A Column B
    What if …
    ·1 it rains?
    ·2 a jackal attacks you?
    ·3 break your leg? I'll …
    ·4 ___________________________
    ·5 ___________________________
    ·6 ___________________________


    Suggestion key:

    A: I'm going to camp in the forest.
    B: What ill you do if you don't find where to sleep?
    A: I'll pitch a tent.
    B: What if you don't have a cleared-up space where to pitch your tent?
    A: Don't worry. I'll sleep under a tree.
    B: But what if a jackal attacks you?
    A: Well, I'll climb up the tree and shout out for help.
    B: What if you fall from the tree and you break your leg?
    A: Don't worry. I'll call you up. I always carry my mobile with me.

    3- Text Book p 72

    Write it out p 72

    What will you do if you pass your Middle School Brevet? Write a paragraph, like the one written by Becky or by Paul. Here are some ideas to help you.
    go to a secondary school.
    go to vocational training school.
    opt for the Foreign Languages Stream.
    go to university.
    don't get a scholarship.
    can't find a job.
    Become a translator.
    get married.
    travel all over the world.

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Zohra,
    Thank you for asking me about what I'll do after taking the Brevet Exam. Well, if I succeed, I'll go to secondary school. I'll opt for the Foreign Languages Stream. If I pass my Baccalaureate, I'll go to university. I will train to become a translator. If I get my diploma, I'll travel all around the world to see other people and make friends.
    However, I know that life is full of surprises. So if I fail, I'll go to a vocational school. I'll train to be a computer technician. If I manage to get my diploma, I'll open a cybercafé and work on my own. Of course if I make a lot of money, I'll build a house. I'll get married and start a family.
    Yours,
    Amina

    4- Text Book p 77

    Activity 2 p 72

    An American pen-friend of yours has asked you for information about how the Algerian pre-university educational system works. Reply to him / her. Include a diagram. Present your letter to the class for discussion.

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Becky,
    I'm happy to help you in your project on schools in other countries. The pre-university educational system in Algeria consists of three important stages. First, pupils go to primary / elementary school at six. They study there for five years. At the age of eleven, they take a final primary school exam. If they succeed, they move to middle school. The middle school goes for 4 years, from MS 1 to MS 4. students take the Brevet Exam at the end of MS 4. If they manage to get a pass, they will go to the lycée. There are many streams in the lycée. Students can choose at the end of the second year in the lycée the stream which they like best if they take the Baccalaureate Exam. The baccalaureate is a diploma which allows its holders to register at university.
    I hope this information will help you get a good score in your project.
    Best wishes,
    Meriem




    5- Text Book p 84

    Write it out p 84

    Making contingency plans
    Imagine you're going on an excursion with a friend of yours next Friday by coach. You may come up against unexpected difficulties, but you have prepared alternative solutions. Write an e-mail to your friend telling him / her of:
    What you have planned to do.
    What you will do instead if a problem arises.
    Example:
    Normally, we'll have lunch at 12.30 by the riverside. But if it rains, we'll get back into the coach and have our sandwiches inside.

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Ali,
    I'm writing to inform you about the plans for the next Friday's excursion. The departure point will be our school, just at the front door. Excursion will start if everybody is punctual, we'll start at 7 sharp. We'll postpone the departure for another 15 minutes if there are late comers.
    The weather forecast announces a day with showers on Friday. Don't worry; we have made a contingency plan just in case it rains while we are on excursion. Thus, if it rains in the morning, we won't go to Batna, because the bridge of Biskra is broken we'll visit Jamaa instead. That will keep us from getting wet. Normally, we'll have lunch at 12.30 by riverside in Meshounsh. But if the weather gets bad, we'll get back into the coach and have our sandwiches inside…
    I look forward to seeing everybody on Friday morning.
    Karim,
    Excursion Coordinator

    6- Text Book p 87

    Writing p 87

    Imagine you're a militant in a "green" political party. Write a ten-line paragraph to announce the programme which your party will implement if it wins the elections.


    Start like this:
    q If you vote for us, we will … 1. Environment
    ( to plant trees / to ban traffic in towns / to build
    Recycling factories / to clean polluted rivers / … )
    q As soon as we take office, … 2. Economy
    ( to impose taxes on polluting industries /
    on cigarettes )
    oblige factories to re-use old bottles /
    Create 1 million jobs for street sweepers

    Suggestion key:

    Dear citizens,
    The Green Party is entering the municipal elections with the following programme. If you vote for us, we will plant trees all along the pavements of our town. We promise that we will ban traffic in the centre of the town and build recycling factories. So vote for us.
    We also promise that we will impose taxes on polluting industries and on cigarettes as soon as we take office. As you know these are the major causes of cancer. We will oblige factories to re-use old bottles. We hope to create more than 10,000 jobs for street sweepers in the whole country.
    We count on you to win the vote. Help us make our city cleaner and our citizens more prosperous and healthier.

    File Four :

    1- Text Book p 94

    Write it up p 94

    Think about the times when you were younger and complete the reminiscences below using used to and didn't use to.
    When I was younger, I … (go to school / bicycle / bus / foot / train / horseback ...
    After school, I …(to revise my lessons / to watch TV…) for one hour.
    My favourite TV show … (to be The Cosby Show / Friends …)
    My friends … (to come to my house to play games...)
    At school, I … (not to like Maths, English, Physics ...)
    I … (to prefer to study Arabic / French)
    The season I …(to like most was summer / winter …)
    During summer holidays, I … (to go to the beach / camping in the forest / …)

    Suggestion key:

    When I was younger, I used to go to school on foot. After school, I used to revise my lessons before watching TV. My favourite TV show used to be cartoons "Tom and Jerry". My friends used to come to my house to play games. At school, I didn't use to like French. I used to prefer to study languages Arabic and English. The season I liked most was summer. During summer holidays, I used to play many games with my friends.







    2- Text Book p 98

    Write it out p 98

    Write a short note for tourists about what life used to be like in the Sahara long time ago. Link the pairs of sentences with appropriate relative pronouns. Use the information contained in Ann's letter.
    Tigers, bears and lions / to live near the caves.
    These tigers, bears and lions / to attack people.
    _________________
    The children / to stay close to open fire.
    They / often / to get burnt.
    __________________
    The children / often / to fetch water to drink.
    These children / to fall into the deep lakes / to die.
    ___________________

    Start as follows:
    Life used to be very dangerous in the Sahara. …

    Suggestion key:

    Life used to be very dangerous in the Sahara. You know, tigers, bears and lions, which lived near the caves, used to attack cave people. Today all you can see are these beautiful camels, which have carried you here from the hotel. Life was even more dangerous for children. The children who used to stay close to the open fire often get burnt. The children who often fetched water to drink fell into the deep lakes and died. …

    3- Text Book p 110

    Activity 2 p 110

    Write a short letter of opinion to a newspaper or a magazine about your favourite hero using the letter about Martin Luther King Day as a model. Follow the outline below.
    Though Abdelhamid Ben Badis never _________, he _________
    Illustrative examples:
    First, ________ . second, ________. Third, ________ . Finally, ________ .




    Concluding sentence:
    He lived and worked for _______ are right to celebrate _______ on April 16th, every year. So __________.

    Suggestion key:

    Though Abdelhamid Ben Badis didn't participate in the War of Independence, he was for methe greatest hero of the Algerian Revolution. I hold this opinion for four main reasons. First, he was among the Algerian intellectuals who laid the foundations of the Algerian nation. Second, he lived and worked for the independence of Algeria. We are right to celebrate Science Day on his birthday, April 16th, every year. ___________

    4- Text Book p 114

    Activity 10 p 114

    Write a short autobiographical paragraph telling about your childhood.
    Start like this:
    How times flies! Eight years ago, …

    Suggestion key:

    How times flies! Eight years ago, I was a pupil at …Primary school. I used to be so short that my teacher always seated me in the front. I used to be so shy. I never used to raise my finger to answer questions because I was afraid that my classmates would laugh at me. …

    File Five :

    1- Text Book p 121

    Write it up p 121

    You are the next guest on a TV show entitled This is your chance! Prepare yourself for the show by writing a short paragraph to answer the questions that the TV host will ask you .


    Host : Would you introduce yourself to the audience, please?
    You : My name is ____ I'm ____ old. I live in ___. My mother ___.
    Host : What things in your life would you change if you could?
    You : If I could change things in my life, I'd __________.

    Suggestion key:


    Host : Would you introduce yourself to the audience, please?
    You : My name is ____ I'm ____ old. I live in El-Oued. My father is _____ and my mother is _______. I'm a pupil at _____ school .
    Host : What things in your life would you change if you could?
    You : If I could change things in my life, I'd work harder at school. I'd do more exercise to keep fit. I'd watch less TV and talk more with my family and friends. If I had time, I would help my father and mother odd jobs. …






    2- Text Book p 125

    Write it out p 125

    Write a e-mail to a pen-friend of yours to inform him / her about your holiday plans. Show indecision because you're not really sure if you could really act on them or not. Draw inspiration from Ronald's e-mail.

    Suggestion key:

    This year I haven't really made up my mind as to where I'll spend my summer holidays. I might go to visit Grandma and Grandpa in Oran. They might need some help in cleaning their home and garden. I might go to the sea. The beach is only two kilometres away from my grandparents' home. But I might go camping with my friends as well. …

    3- Text Book p 132

    Write it up p 132

    A friend of yours spending his / her holidays in Britain has informed you by e-mail that he / she has one of the problems listed in exercise 2 p 132. suggest a course of action to him / her.
    Start like this:
    Dear ______,
    Sorry to hear about the trouble you're having in Britain at present. If I __________
    __________________________________________________ __________________________
    __________________________________________________ _______________________
    __________________________________________________ ______________________
    Yours,
    ______

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Rashid,
    Sorry to hear about the trouble you're having in Britain at present. Don't panic. It often happens that tourists lose their passports. If I were you, I would inform both the local police and the Algerian Consulate in London. You could phone to Rabah at 122525. He could give a lift there. I know you are probably running short of money. The best things to do would be to move to a youth hostel. You won't pay as much in a youth hostel as you do in a hotel. Above all, keep your self-control. After all holidays are nothing if there is o adventure in them. I'm sure you will keep fond memories of these holidays when you come back to Algeria.
    Best Wishes,
    Kamal




    4- Text Book p 135

    Activity 2 p 135

    Write a short letter to seek advice from the "agony aunt" of a newspaper problem page using Nacera's letter as a model. Include as many link words as possible.

    Suggestion key:

    Dear Dr Hakima,
    I'm writing to seek your kind advice. I'm a four-year Middle School student. I took my Brevet last June and had a pass with merit. The problem is that I'm facing a dilemma as to choice of the stream in which I'll register in the lycée. My parents want me to register in the scientific stream whereas my choice goes for the literary stream.
    Indeed, if I decided to register in the stream of my choice, I would realise the dream of my life which consists of becoming a translator. I would work very hard to get a literary stream Baccalaureate, which would allow me to register at a department of translation at university.
    However, if I followed my choice, my parents would be really disappointed. They want me to become a doctor.
    In conclusion, I'm at a crossroads in my educational career. I don't know whether I must listen to my parents or to decide about what do with my school life on my own. What should I do ?
    Yours sincerely,
    Karim

    5- Text Book p 138

    Activity 3 p 138

    Story chain. Write about what you would do if you had ten billion dinars. Each time you write a sentence, transform the result clause into a condition to build another sentence. Conclude when you reach about seven lines.
    Example:
    If I had ten billion dinars, I would buy a boat. If I bought a boat, I …

    Suggestion key:

    If I had ten billion dinars, I would buy a boat. If I bought a boat, I would travel round the world. If I travelled round the world, I would make friends in every corner of the world. If I made friends, I would start another ecological movement, which I would call the New Friends of the Earth. If …




    File six :

    1- Text Book p 145

    Write it up p 145

    Imagine you had an unlucky day yesterday. Note down, hour by hour, all the unhappy events that interrupted your daily activities.
    Use sequencers such as first, next, eventually, finally to make your dairy note more coherent.

    Suggestion key:

    Yesterday was unlucky day for me. First, when I woke up, I realized that I was late. Next, as I was having breakfast, I spilled coffee on my shirt. Then, while I was getting on the school bus, I missed the step and fell down. The worst happened in the evening when I came back home. While I was crossing the street, a motorcyclist nearly ran me over. I dropped my satchel in the middle of the road and a car ran over it.
    Eventually, (Finally,) when I entered to my house, I didn't find my English copybook. I lost it and I didn't know where.

    2- Text Book p 148

    Write it out p 148

    Write a newspaper report about the same accident as one reported in the previous page. Invent a headline for your article and take another point of view (that of the lorry driver for instance).
    Some clues to help you
    to sing – to play the guitar – to see – to overtake – to look – to land – to crash – to hear.
    hitchhikers – bikers / cyclists – motorcyclists – airplane – slippery road .

    Suggestion key:

    Two Die in Road Accident near Airport
    I was driving on Airport Road when I saw a hitchhiker. I stopped to give him a lift. When he got on the lorry, I saw that he had a guitar. I told him to play us a tune. He was playing and I was singing along with him. Everything was going well when suddenly I saw two bikers trying to overtake me. It was round a sharp bend. I reduced my speed, but while they were overtaking me, a motorcyclist coming from the other direction suddenly appeared in the middle of the road. The road as slippery and the man behind the motorcyclist were drawing his attention to a low flying plane. So he didn't see the bikers who were overtaking me. When he barked, his motorcycle slipped and crashed into the bikers.


    التعابير الكتابية المتوقعة في البكالوريا للشعب الادبية في الانجليزية

    Bribery is a form of corruption. It is the offering and receiving of any item of value; money property or advantage, its aim is to influence the action of any official. This unethical practice has become so widespread that it’s difficult to get rid of it. Therefore, governments must do their best to eradicate it first, a well implemented system of law should be implemented in order to prevent bribery, also, and bribers must be punished severely so that they will become examples for the others. In addition, companies have to sign commitment contracts which they promise not to break the law .fur there more, work of public officials, must be inspected regularly in order to ensure that they don’t receive any bribe. I Think that when regulatory controls are strict, official are afraid of committing such offences. However, when they feel that no one is controlling their action, they will commit more and more crimes.
    To sum up, I would say that no nation will develop or prosper if it doesn’t fight this dangerous phenomenon urgently .also I wish all citizens contributed in this battle so as to eradicate all forms of corruption.

    Corruption is a dangerous social phenomenon which can undermine the development and well being of a country this is why we must combat it with our might( power ).what would I do if were elected a president ؟

    If I were elected a president of this country, i would pass severe laws to punish corrupt people in under to protect honest citizens from their wrong doings.

    More over, tax evasion should be punished severely as it constitutes a serious threat to the existence of the nation is projects since most of them are dependent on the collection of taxes.

    Then , I think that work , being the most valuable richness of the country ,should be rehabilitee .If I were elected president .I would do my best to reconcile our countrymen with work .

    To conclude, I would appoint honest, hard working, and sincere civil servants who are ready to sacrifice themselves for the welfare of their people.

    The Solar System of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 166 known moons, three dwarf planets (Ceres, Pluto, and Eris and their four known moons), and billions of small bodies. This last category includes asteroids,, comets, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust.



    In broad terms, the charted regions of the Solar System consist of the Sun, four terrestrial inner planets, an asteroid belt composed of small rocky bodies, four gas giant outer planets, and a second belt, called the Kuiper belt, composed of icy objects.
    In order of their distances from the Sun, the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Six of the eight planets are in turn orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth's Moon, and each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other particles. All the planets except Earth are named after deities from Greco-Roman mythology. The three dwarf planets are Pluto, the largest known Kuiper belt object; Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt; and Eris, the largest of the three which lies in the scattered

    Comets are small, irregular shaped bodies that are composed primarily of gases. They are actually remnants from the formation of stars and planets billions of years ago. If a big comet hit the Earth, it would cause great devastation. It might cause huge tidal waves and fires and put so much dust and soot in the air that most of the sunlight would be blocked, and plants would die and animals would have nothing to eat. Such events are very rare, however. While very small meteorites hit the Earth every day, the last big impact was 65 million years ago.
    Astronomers have begun to chart the paths of as many of the asteroids and comets which come near to the Earth as they can. Because it is possible to predict very accurately the motion of these objects, they should be able to provide a warning well in advance.​
     
    آخر تعديل: ‏19 ابريل 2016